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Unicode is a character set that aims to define all characters and glyphs from all human languages, living and dead. Mb regex set options binary more and more software being required to support multiple languages, or even just any language, Unicode has been strongly gaining popularity in recent years. Using different character sets for different languages is simply too cumbersome for programmers and users. Unfortunately, Unicode brings its own requirements and pitfalls when it comes to regular expressions.

Of the regex flavors discussed in this tutorial, JavaXML and the. NET framework use Unicode-based regex engines. Perl supports Unicode starting with version mb regex set options binary. PCRE can mb regex set options binary be compiled with Unicode support.

Ruby supports Unicode escapes and properties in regular expressions starting with version 1. RegexBuddy's regex engine is fully Unicode-based starting with version 2. EditPad Pro supports Unicode starting with version 6. Unfortunately, it need not be depending on the meaning of the word "character". All Unicode regex engines discussed in this tutorial treat any single Unicode code point as a single character. When this tutorial tells you that the dot matches any single characterthis translates into Unicode parlance as "the dot matches any single Unicode code point".

Any code point that is not a combining mark can be followed by any number of combining marks. The reason for this duality is that many historical character sets encode "a with grave accent" as a single character. Unicode's designers thought it would be useful to have a mb regex set options binary mapping with popular legacy character sets, in addition to the Unicode way of separating marks and base letters which makes arbitrary combinations not supported by legacy character sets possible.

There is one difference, though: NET, and Ruby 1. To match any number of graphemes, use? You must always specify 4 hexadecimal digits E. You can omit leading zeros in the hexadecimal number between the curly braces. Remember mb regex set options binary when writing a regex as a Java string literal, backslashes must be escaped. Depending on what you're doing, the difference may be significant. In addition to complications, Unicode also mb regex set options binary new possibilities.

One is that each Unicode character belongs to a certain category. Again, "character" really means "Unicode code point".

All other regex engines described in this tutorial will match the space in both cases, ignoring the case of the category between the curly braces. Still, I recommend you make a habit of using the same uppercase and lowercase combination as I did in the list of properties below.

This will make your regular expressions work with all Unicode regex engines. The shorthand only works with single-letter Unicode properties. You can find a complete list of all Unicode properties below. You may omit the underscores or use hyphens or spaces instead. The Unicode standard places each assigned code point character into one script.

A script is a group of code points used by a particular human writing system. Some scripts like Thai correspond with a single human language. Other scripts like Latin span multiple languages. Some languages are composed of multiple scripts. There is no Japanese Unicode script. Instead, Unicode offers the HiraganaKatakanaHanand Latin scripts that Japanese documents are usually composed of.

A special script is the Common script. This script contains all sorts of characters that are common to a wide range of scripts. It includes all sorts of punctuation, whitespace and miscellaneous symbols. The "Is" syntax is useful for distinguishing between scripts and blocks, as explained in the next section. Java 7 adds support for Unicode scripts. Unlike the other flavors, Java 7 requires the "Is" prefix. The Unicode standard divides the Unicode character map into different blocks or ranges of code points.

Each block is used to define characters of a particular script like "Tibetan" or belonging to a particular group like "Braille Patterns". Most blocks include unassigned code points, reserved for future expansion of the Unicode standard. An essential difference between blocks and scripts is that a block is a single contiguous range of code points, as listed below.

Scripts consist of characters taken from all over the Unicode character map. Blocks may include unassigned code points i. Scripts never include unassigned code points. Generally, if you're not sure whether to use a Unicode script or Unicode mb regex set options binary, use the script. For example, the Currency block does not include the dollar and yen symbols.

You should not blindly use any of the blocks listed below based on their names. Instead, look at the ranges of characters they actually match.

A tool like RegexBuddy can be very helpful with this. Not all Unicode regex engines use the same syntax to match Unicode blocks. JavaRuby 2. Perl and the JGsoft flavor support both notations. I recommend you use the "In" notation if your regex engine supports it. By using "In", it's obvious you're matching a block and not a similarly named property or script. In Java, you must omit the hyphens. Java 4 is case sensitive. Java 5 and later are case sensitive for the "Is" prefix but not for the block names themselves.

The actual names of the blocks are the same in all regular expression engines. The block names are defined in the Unicode standard.

While you should always keep in mind the pitfalls created by the different ways in which accented characters can be encoded, you don't always have to worry about them. If you know that your input string and your regex use the same style, then you don't have mb regex set options binary worry about it at all.

This process is called Unicode normalization. NET, have library routines for normalizing strings. If you normalize both the subject and regex before attempting the match, there won't be any inconsistencies. This tells the Java regex engine to consider canonically equivalent characters as identical.

None of the other regex engines currently support canonical equivalence while matching. So if you're working with text that you typed in yourself, any regex that you type in yourself will match in the same way. Since all the Windows or ISO code pages encode accented characters as a single code point, nearly all software uses a single Unicode code point for each character when converting the file to Unicode.

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In the absence of a predicate, a stub always matches, and there's never a reason to add more than one stub to an imposter. Predicates allow imposters to have much richer behavior by defining whether or not a stub matches a request.

When multiple stubs are created on an imposter, the first stub that matches is selected. Each predicate object contains one or more of the request fields as keys. Predicates are added to a stub in an array, and all predicates are AND'd together. The following predicate operators are allowed:.

See the equals example below to see the caseSensitive and except parameters in action. See the xpath page for xpath examples. See the jsonpath page for jsonpath examples. Almost all predicates are scoped to a request field; see the protocol pages linked to from the sidebar to see the request fields. It takes a string function that accepts the entire request.

See the injection page for details. The predicates work intuitively for baseencoded binary data as well by internally converting the baseencoded string to a JSON string representing the byte array. This works well for everything but matches , because any regular expression operators get encoded as binary.

In mountebank's experience, contains is the most useful predicate for binary imposters, as even binary RPC data generally contains strings representing method names. On occasion you may encounter multi-valued keys. This can be the case with querystrings and HTTP headers that have repeating keys, for example? In those cases, deepEquals will require all the values in any order to match. All other predicates will match if any value matches, so an equals predicate will match with the value of second in the example above.

When the body contains an array, the logic above still applies: You also have the option of specifying an array in the predicate definition. If you do so, then all fields in the predicate array must match in any order. Most predicates will match even if there are additional fields in the actual request array; deepEquals requires the array lengths to be equal.

The following example shows this with a querystring:. First let's call the imposter matching both keys in the deepEquals predicate. For it to match, no other keys must be present, although the order does not matter. Since both keys match and there are no extraneous keys, we get our expected response from the first stub. If we add a third key not specified by the predicate, it no longer matches the deepEquals predicate. It does, however, match the equals predicate, which supports matching a subset of arrays.

In this case, our third stub matches, because it does not use an array predicate, and one of the actual array values in the request matches the predicate definition.

If he is unable to parse the field, the predicate will fail; otherwise it will pass or fail according to the selected value. The TCP examples use netcat nc to send TCP data over a socket, which is like telnet , but makes the output easier to script. The examples for binary imposters use the base64 command line tool to decode base64 to binary before sending to the socket. The first predicate is the most complex, and the request has to match all of the specified request fields.

We have the option of putting multiple fields under one equals predicate or splitting each one into a separate predicate in the array. In this example, all of the ones that share the default predicate parameters are together. For those, neither the case of the keys nor the values will affect the outcome.

The body predicate is treated separately. The text will be compared in a case-sensitive manner, after stripping away the regular expression! The order of the query parameters and header fields does not matter. The fourth stub will never run, since it matches the same requests as the third stub.

We're sending a baseencoded version of four bytes: Our first predicate is a base64 encoded version of 0x2 and 0x3. The response is a baseencoded version of the string "first response":. The third stub will never run, since it matches the same requests as the second stub.

Let's create a text-based imposter with multiple stubs. Binary imposters won't see any interesting behavior difference with only startsWith predicates:. We'll use the command line base64 tool to decode the request to binary before sending to the imposter. Our first predicate is a base64 encoded version of 0x3 and 0x4. Binary imposters cannot use the matches predicate. The first stub requires a case-sensitive match on a string starting with "first", followed by a non-word character, followed by "second":.

The exists predicate is primarily for object data types, like HTTP headers and query parameters. It works on string fields by simply returning true if the exists value is true and the string if non-empty. Setting the exists value to false inverts the meaning.

The first stub matches if the querystring includes q , but not if it includes search , and if the headers include Accept , but not if they include X-Rate-Limit. The second stub matches if the request method is a non-empty string always true , and if the body is empty.

The stub matches two of the three sub-predicates, which is not enough to match the and predicate. The inject predicate allows you to inject JavaScript to determine if the predicate should match or not. The JavaScript should be a function that accepts the request object and optionally a logger and returns true or false. The execution will have access to a node.

The following example uses node's Buffer object to decode base64 to a byte array. The first stub matches if the third byte is greater than The request we're sending is an encoding [99, , ]: The logs will also show the injected log output. The second predicate has to match a request originating from localhost with the third byte less than or equal to We're sending [98, 99, ]:.

Predicates In the absence of a predicate, a stub always matches, and there's never a reason to add more than one stub to an imposter. The following predicate operators are allowed: Operator Description equals The request field matches the predicate deepEquals Performs nested set equality on the request field, useful when the request field is an object e.

If false , the request field must not exist. See the injection page for more details. Predicates can be parameterized. Parameter Default Description caseSensitive false Determines if the match is case sensitive or not. This includes keys for objects such as query parameters. The predicate's scope is limited to the selected value in the request field. Matching arrays On occasion you may encounter multi-valued keys.

The following example shows this with a querystring: Sat, 06 May See the json page for json examples. Thu, 09 Jan Sun, 26 Jan The response is a baseencoded version of the string "first response": Fri, 10 Jan Binary imposters won't see any interesting behavior difference with only startsWith predicates: The stub does not match none of the sub-predicates match We're sending [98, 99, ]: Performs nested set equality on the request field, useful when the request field is an object e.

If true , the request field must exist. Injects JavaScript to decide whether the request matches or not. Determines if the match is case sensitive or not. Defines an object containing a selector string and, optionally, an ns object field that defines a namespace map.

Defines an object containing a selector string.