Free futures options trading books download12 comments
Pokemon online trading card game no download
However, most are usually available between 7am and 6pm. About UK Schools from Wikipedia. Local government authorities are responsible for implementing policy for public education and state-funded schools at a local level. State-funded schools can be categorised as grammar schools, which are selective, or comprehensive schools, which are not.
These can be further subdivided into free schools, other academies and state-run schools. The state-funded education system is divided into stages based upon age: While education is compulsory until 18, schooling is only compulsory to 16, thus post education can take a number of forms, and may be academic or vocational. It can also include work-based apprenticeships or traineeships, or volunteering. The Regulated Qualifications Framework RQF covers national school examinations and vocational education qualifications.
It is referenced to the European Qualifications Framework, and thus to other qualifications frameworks across the European Union. Contents 1 History of English education 2 Legally compulsory education 2. History of education in England Until all schools were charitable or private institutions, but in that year the Elementary Education Act permitted local governments to complement the existing elementary schools in order to fill any gaps.
The Education Act allowed local authorities to create secondary schools. The Education Act abolished fees for elementary schools. Legally compulsory education Full-time education is compulsory for all children aged 5 to 18, either at school or otherwise, with a child beginning primary education during the school year they turn 5.
This age was raised to 18 by the Education and Skills Act ; the change took effect in for year-olds and for year-olds. From this time, the school leaving age which remains 16 and the education leaving age which is now 18 have been separated.
The Compulsory stages of education are broken into a Foundation Stage actually covering the last part of optional and first part of compulsory education , 4 Key Stages, and post education sometimes unofficially termed Key Stage Five, which takes a variety of forms including 6th Form covering the last 2 years of Secondary Education in schools.
Schools and stages Below is a table summarising the most common names of the various schools and stages. Grammar schools are normally state-funded but selective schools, admitting children from 11 years old onward, but there are exceptions. There are 1, too few computing teachers, 1, too few physics teachers and 1, too few maths teachers.
Lecturers in further education colleges fell by just under 20, from to The public sector pay cap is blamed. This leads to larger classes as well as pupils getting less individual attention. Thousands of children with special education needs are at home without a school place because funding for paces was not provided. The number rose from in to in Since , there have been six main types of maintained state-funded school in England: Academy schools, established by the Labour Government to replace poorly-performing community schools in areas of high social and economic deprivation.
Their start-up costs are typically funded by private means, such as entrepreneurs or NGOs, with running costs met by Central Government and, like Foundation schools, are administratively free from direct local authority control. The Conservative-Liberal Democrat coalition government expanded the role of Academies in the Academy Programme, in which a wide number of schools in non-deprived areas were also encouraged to become Academies, thereby essentially replacing the role of Foundation schools established by the previous Labour government.
They are monitored directly by the Department for Education. Free schools, introduced by the Conservative-Liberal Democrat coalition following the general election, are newly established schools in England set up by parents, teachers, charities or businesses, where there is a perceived local need for more schools. They are funded by taxpayers, are academically non-selective and free to attend, and like Foundation schools and Academies, are not controlled by a local authority.
They are ultimately accountable to the Secretary of State for Education. Free schools are an extension of the existing Academy Programme. The first 24 free schools opened in Autumn Foundation schools, in which the governing body employs the staff and has primary responsibility for admissions.
School land and buildings are owned by the governing body or by a charitable foundation. The Foundation appoints a minority of governors. Many of these schools were formerly grant maintained schools. In the Labour government proposed allowing all schools to become Foundation schools if they wished. Voluntary Aided schools, linked to a variety of organisations. They can be faith schools about two thirds Church of England-affiliated; just under one third Roman Catholic Church, and a few another faith , or non-denominational schools, such as those linked to London Livery Companies.
The governing body employs the staff and has primary responsibility for admissions. In addition, three of the fifteen City Technology Colleges established in the s still remain; the rest having converted to academies. These are state-funded all-ability secondary schools which charge no fees but which are independent of local authority control.
There are also a small number of state-funded boarding schools. English state-funded primary schools are almost all local schools with a small catchment area. More than half are owned by the Local Authority, though many are nominally voluntary controlled and some are voluntary aided.
Some schools just include infants aged 4 to 7 and some just juniors aged 7 to Some are linked, with automatic progression from the infant school to the junior school, and some are not.
A few areas still have first schools for ages around 4 to 8 and middle schools for ages 8 or 9 to 12 or An example of a Grammar School — in Sutton, London English secondary schools are mostly comprehensive, although the intake of comprehensive schools can vary widely, especially in urban areas with several local schools. In a few areas children can enter a grammar school if they pass the eleven plus exam; there are also a number of isolated fully selective grammar schools and a few dozen partially selective schools.
All state-funded schools are regularly inspected by the Office for Standards in Education, often known simply as Ofsted. Ofsted publish reports on the quality of education at a particular school on a regular basis. Schools judged by Ofsted to be providing an inadequate standard of education may be subject to special measures, which could include replacing the governing body and senior staff.
Independent schools Main article: Some schools offer scholarships for those with particular skills or aptitudes, or bursaries to allow students from less financially well-off families to attend. Independent schools do not have to follow the National Curriculum, and their teachers are not required or regulated by law to have official teaching qualifications.
Education by means other than schooling See also: The legislation places no requirement for parents who choose not to send their children to school to follow the National Curriculum, or to give formal lessons, or to follow school hours and terms, and parents do not need to be qualified teachers.
The state provides no financial support to parents who choose to educate their children outside of school. Post education Students at both state schools and independent schools typically take GCSE examinations, which mark the end of compulsory education in school.
Above school-leaving age, the independent and state sectors are similarly structured. While students may still leave school on the last Friday in June, they must remain in education of some form until their 18th birthday.
Courses at FE colleges, referred to as further education courses, can also be studied by adults over Apprenticeships and traineeships The National Apprenticeship Service helps people 16 or more years of age enter apprenticeships in order to learn a skilled trade.
Traineeships are also overseen by the National Apprenticeship Service, and are education and a training programmes that are combined with work experience to give trainees the skills needed to get an apprenticeship.
Apprenticeships come in four levels: A study in found that unemployment rates among former apprentices one year after completing their apprenticeships were one-third those of university graduates one year after finishing their degrees.
The report also found that apprenticeships had a lower perceived value compared to degrees in Britain than in many other countries. Post area reviews In , the Department announced a major restructuring of the further education sector, through 37 area reviews of post provision.
Higher education in England is provided by Higher Education HE colleges, university colleges, universities and private colleges. The state does not control university syllabuses, but it does influence admission procedures through the Office for Fair Access OFFA , which approves and monitors access agreements to safeguard and promote fair access to higher education. The independent Quality Assurance Agency for Higher Education inspects universities to assure standards, advises on the granting of degree awarding powers and University title, and maintains the Quality Code for Higher Education, which includes the Framework for Higher Education Qualification.
During a first degree students are known as undergraduates. Postgraduate education Students who have completed a first degree can apply for postgraduate and graduate courses. These fees are repayable after graduation, contingent on attaining a certain level of income, with the state paying all fees for students from the poorest backgrounds.
UK students are generally entitled to student loans for maintenance. Postgraduate fees vary but are generally more than undergraduate fees, depending on the degree and university. There are numerous bursaries awarded to low income applicants to offset undergraduate fees and, for postgraduates, full scholarships are available for most subjects, and are usually awarded competitively. Different arrangements apply to English students studying in Scotland, and to Scottish and Welsh students studying in England.
The actual amount differs by institution and subject, with the lab based subjects charging a greater amount. Adult education Adult education, continuing education or lifelong learning is offered to students of all ages.
This can include the vocational qualifications mentioned above, and also:. One or two year access courses, to allow adults without suitable qualifications access to university. The Open University runs undergraduate and postgraduate distance learning programmes. Courses are available in a wide variety of areas, such as holiday languages, crafts and yacht navigation. These share a common numbering scheme for their levels, which was also used for the earlier Qualifications and Credit Framework.
Employers often experience difficulty in finding young people who have such basic employability skills as literacy, numeracy, problem solving, teamworking and time management.
Katharine Birbalsingh has written of the problems she perceives in many community schools. Birbalsingh has visited schools in Jamaica and India where pupils are desperate to gain the kind of education to which pupils in her own school and their parents were indifferent. She was a deputy head teacher in south London until she spoke at a Conservative Party conference in and was quickly sacked.
Pupils claiming free school meals  School type Primary Secondary All Not only was this so at an overall national level, but also in the postcode areas nearby the schools. This suggested selection by religion was leading to selection of children from more well-off families. A survey of teachers by The Guardian in identified a widespread reason for not enjoying the job: Throughout the time they are in full-time education children in the north of England do less well than children in the south east.