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Quite often, we want to embed data values in some explanatory text. For example, if we are displaying the number of nematodes in a hectare, it is a lot more meaningful to display it as "There were So what we need is a way to mix constant text like "nematodes per hectare" with values from elsewhere in your program.
The template is a string containing a mixture of one or more format codes embedded in constant text. The format method uses its arguments to substitute an appropriate value for each format code in the template. The arguments to the. Just to give you the general flavor of how this works, here's a simple conversational example. In the next example, we supply the values using keyword arguments.
The arguments may be supplied in any order. Here is the general form of a format code, where optional parts in [brackets] , and actual characters are in "double quotes":.
The name part of a format code specifies the source of the value to be formatted here. Numbers refer to positional arguments passed to the. You may also use any Python name to refer to one of the keyword arguments. If the associated argument is an iterable, you may append an expression of this form to retrieve one of its elements:. If the associated argument has attributes, you can append an expression of this form to refer to that attribute:.
Starting with Python 2. If you use this convention, you must omit all those numbers. You can, however, omit all the numbers and still use the keyword names feature:. Following the name part of a format code, you can use one of these two forms to force the value to be converted by a standard function:. This character is used to pad a short value to the specified length. It may be specified only in combination with an align character. Specifies how to align values that are not long enough to occupy the specified length.
There are four values:. Here are some examples of the use of fill and align. This option controls whether an arithmetic sign is displayed. There are three possible values:. Place a number at this position to specify the total width of the displayed value. Place a comma at this position in your format code to display commas between groups of three digits in whole numbers. Use this part to specify the number of digits after the decimal point.
This code specifies the general type of format used. The default is to convert the value of a string as if using the str function. Refer to the table below for allowed values. Sometimes you need to format a field using a length that is available only once the program is running. This item then refers to either a positional or keyword argument to the. Suppose you want to format a number n using d digits. Here are examples showing this with and without left-zero fill:.
You can, of course, also use keyword arguments to specify the field width. This trick also works for variable precision. The same technique applies to substituting any of the pieces of a format code. Note This method was added in Python 2. General form of a format code.
If the associated argument is an iterable, you may append an expression of this form to retrieve one of its elements: There are four values: This is the default alignment for string values. This is the default alignment for numbers. Note This feature was added in Python 2. Digits greater than 9 are displayed as lowercase characters. X Display an integer in hexadecimal base Digits greater than 9 are displayed as uppercase characters.
Formatting a field of variable length. The older string format operator. Methods on str values. For numbers using a sign specifier, add the padding between the sign and the rest of the value. Always display a sign: Display - only for negative values. Display one space for positive values, - for negative. Given a number, display the character that has that code. Display a float value using the exponential format. For formatting numbers, this format uses the current local setting to insert separator characters.
Display an integer in hexadecimal base Display a number as a percentage: