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You can monitor the MariaDB error log, slow query log, and the general log. The MariaDB error log is generated by default; you can generate the slow query and general logs by setting parameters in your DB parameter group. You can also access MariaDB logs by directing the logs to a database table in the main database and querying that table.
You can use the mysqlbinlog utility to download a binary log. Each log file has the hour it was generated in UTC appended to its name. The log files also have a timestamp that helps you determine when the log entries were written. MariaDB writes to the error log only on startup, shutdown, and when it encounters errors.
A DB instance can go hours or days without new entries being written to the error log. If you see no recent entries, it's because the server did not encounter an error that resulted in a log entry. The MariaDB slow query log and the general log can be written to a file or a database table by setting parameters in your DB parameter group.
To create the slow query log, set to 1. The default is 0. To create the general log, set to 1. To prevent fast-running queries from being logged in the slow query log, specify a value for the shortest query execution time to be logged, in seconds. The default is 10 seconds; the minimum is 0. To log all queries that do not use an index to the slow query log, set this parameter to 1. FILE — Write both general and slow query logs to the file system.
Log files are rotated hourly. NONE — Disable logging. When logging is enabled, Amazon RDS rotates table logs or deletes log files at regular intervals. This measure is a precaution to reduce the possibility of a large log file either blocking database use or affecting performance. When FILE logging is enabled, log files are examined every hour and log files older than 24 hours are deleted.
In some cases, the remaining combined log file size after the deletion might exceed the threshold of 2 percent of a DB instance's allocated space. In these cases, the largest log files are deleted until the log file size no longer exceeds the threshold. This rotation occurs if the space used by the table logs is more than 20 percent of the allocated storage space or the size of all logs combined is greater than 10 GB.
If the amount of space used for a DB instance is greater than 90 percent of the DB instance's allocated storage space, then the thresholds for log rotation are reduced. Log tables are then rotated if the space used by the table logs is more than 10 percent of the allocated storage space or the size of all logs combined is greater than 5 GB.
When log tables are rotated, the current log table is copied to a backup log table and the entries in the current log table are removed. If the backup log table already exists, then it is deleted before the current log table is copied to the backup.
You can query the backup log table if needed. The backup log table for the mysql. You can rotate the mysql. Like the MariaDB error log, these log files are rotated hourly. The log files that were generated during the previous 24 hours are retained. For more information about the slow query and general logs, go to the following topics in the MariaDB documentation:. With CloudWatch Logs, you can perform real-time analysis of the log data, and use CloudWatch to create alarms and view metrics.
You can use CloudWatch Logs to store your log records in highly durable storage. Open the Amazon RDS console at https: Open the Log exports section, and then choose the logs you want to start publishing to CloudWatch Logs. You can call either the modify-db-instance or create-db-instance commands with the following parameters:.
The MariaDB slow query log, error log, and the general log file sizes are constrained to no more than 2 percent of the allocated storage space for a DB instance. To maintain this threshold, logs are automatically rotated every hour and log files older than 24 hours are removed.
If the combined log file size exceeds the threshold after removing old log files, then the largest log files are deleted until the log file size no longer exceeds the threshold. General queries are then logged to the mysql. You can query the tables to access the log information. Enabling this logging increases the amount of data written to the database, which can degrade performance.
Both the general log and the slow query logs are disabled by default. Log tables keep growing until the respective logging activities are turned off by resetting the appropriate parameter to 0.
A large amount of data often accumulates over time, which can use up a considerable percentage of your allocated storage space. Amazon RDS does not allow you to truncate the log tables, but you can move their contents. Rotating a table saves its contents to a backup table and then creates a new empty log table. To completely remove the old data and reclaim the disk space, call the appropriate procedure twice in succession. MariaDB on Amazon RDS supports the row-based and mixed binary log formats, and does not support the statement-based binary log format.
The default binary logging format is mixed. Setting the binary logging format to row-based can result in very large binary log files. Large binary log files reduce the amount of storage available for a DB instance and can increase the amount of time to perform a restore operation of a DB instance.
Choose the new parameter group, and then choose Go to Details Page. Choose Edit Parameters to modify the parameters in the DB parameter group. Choose Save Changes to save the updates to the DB parameter group. You can use the mysqlbinlog utility to download binary logs in text format from MariaDB DB instances. The binary log is downloaded to your local computer.
For more information about using the mysqlbinlog utility, go to Using mysqlbinlog in the MariaDB documentation. To run the mysqlbinlog utility against an Amazon RDS instance, use the following options:.
Specify the --read-from-remote-server option. Specify the DNS name from the endpoint of the instance. Specify the port used by the instance. Specify a MariaDB user that has been granted the replication slave permission. Specify the password for the user, or omit a password value so the utility prompts you for a password. Specify the local file that receives the output. Specify the names of one or more binary log files. For more information about mysqlbinlog options, go to mysqlbinlog Options in the MariaDB documentation.
Amazon RDS normally purges a binary log as soon as possible, but the binary log must still be available on the instance to be accessed by mysqlbinlog. To specify the number of hours for RDS to retain binary logs, use the mysql. After you set the retention period, monitor storage usage for the DB instance to ensure that the retained binary logs do not take up too much storage.
To display the current setting, use the mysql. No special privileges are required to use these settings. The following is an example of a row-based transaction in MariaDB. The use of row-based logging is triggered by setting the transaction isolation level to read-committed. Without annotations, the binary log entries for the transaction look like the following:. The following statement enables session-level annotations for this same transaction, and disables them after committing the transaction:.
Sign In to the Console. Amazon Relational Database Service. Create a DB Instance Step 2: Options for MariaDB Appendix: Parameters for MariaDB Appendix: Table logs are rotated during a database version upgrade. Important Setting the binary logging format to row-based can result in very large binary log files.